Material and methods

Type 2 diabetes research studies. Frontmatter

Specific objective The specific objective is to reinforce the excellence, dynamism and creativity of European research. Europe has set out its ambition to move to a new economic model based on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.

This type of transformation will need more than incremental improvements to current technologies and knowledge. It will require much higher capacity for basic research and science-based innovation fuelled by radical new knowledge, allowing Europe to take a leading role in creating type 2 diabetes research studies scientific and technological paradigm shifts which will be the key drivers of productivity growth, competitiveness, wealth, sustainable development and social progress in the future industries and sectors.

Such paradigm shifts have historically tended to originate from the public-sector science base before going on to lay the foundations for whole new industries and sectors.

World-leading innovation is closely associated with excellent science. Once the undisputed leader, Europe has fallen behind in the race to produce the very best cutting-edge science and has played a secondary role to the United States in the major post-war technological advances. Similarly, international university rankings show that Type 2 diabetes research studies universities dominate the top places.

One part of the challenge is that while Europe and the United States invest similar amounts in their public-sector science bases, the Union has nearly three times as many public-sector researchers, resulting in significantly lower investment per researcher. Moreover, US funding is more selective about allocating resources to the leading researchers. This helps to explain why the Union's public-sector researchers are, on average, less productive and, altogether, make less combined scientific impact than their far less numerous US counterparts.

Another major part of the challenge is that in many European countries the public and private sector still does not offer sufficiently attractive conditions for the best researchers. It can take many years before talented young researchers are able to become independent scientists in their own right.

Ageing, ACE2 deficiency and bad outcome in COVID-19

This leads to a dramatic waste of Europe's research potential by delaying and in some cases even inhibiting the emergence of the next generation of researchers, who bring new ideas and energy, and by enticing excellent researchers starting their career to seek advancement elsewhere.

Furthermore, these factors compound Europe's relative unattractiveness in the global competition for scientific talent. Rationale and Union added value The ERC was created to provide Europe's best researchers, both women and men, with the resources cukorbetegség és chiri kezelés need to allow them to compete better at global level, by funding individual teams on the basis of pan-European competition.

It operates autonomously: an independent Scientific Council made up of scientists, engineers and scholars of the highest repute and expertise, of both women and men in different age groups, establishes the overall scientific strategy and has full authority over decisions on the type of research to be funded.

These are essential features of the ERC, guaranteeing the effectiveness of its scientific programme, the quality of its operations and peer-review process and its credibility in the scientific community. Operating across Europe on a competitive basis, the ERC is able to draw on a wider pool of talents and ideas than would be possible for any national scheme.

The type 2 diabetes research studies researchers and the best ideas compete against each other. Applicants know they have to perform at the highest level, the reward being flexible funding on a level playing field, irrespective of local bottlenecks or the availability of national funding.

Frontier research funded by the ERC is thereby expected to have a substantial direct impact in the form of advances at the frontiers of knowledge, opening the way to new and often unexpected scientific and technological results and new areas for research which, ultimately, can generate the radically new ideas which will drive innovation and business inventiveness and tackle societal challenges.

This combination of excellent individual scientists with innovative ideas underpins every stage of the innovation chain. Beyond this, the ERC has a significant structural impact by generating a powerful stimulus for driving up the quality of the European research system, over and above the researchers and projects which the ERC funds directly.

ERC-funded projects and researchers set a clear and inspirational target for frontier research in Europe, raise its profile and make it more attractive for the best researchers at global level. The prestige of hosting ERC grant-holders and the accompanying 'stamp of excellence' are intensifying type 2 diabetes research studies between Europe's universities and other research organisations to offer the most attractive conditions for top researchers.

a diabetes mellitus kezelése 2 típusú háztartási szerek karcos test cukorbetegség kezelésében

And the ability of national systems and individual research institutions to attract and host ERC grant-winners sets a benchmark allowing them to assess their relative strengths and weaknesses and reform their policies and practices accordingly. ERC funding is therefore in addition to ongoing efforts at Union, national and regional level to reform, build capacity and unlock the full potential and attractiveness of the European research system.

ERC funding shall be awarded in accordance with the following well-established principles.

csipkebogyó és a cukorbetegség kezelésében az élő és holt víz kezelés cukorbetegség

Scientific excellence shall be the sole criterion on which ERC grants are awarded. The ERC shall operate on a 'bottom-up' basis without predetermined priorities. The ERC grants shall be open to individual teams of researchers of any age, gender, and from any country in the world, working in Europe. The ERC shall aim to foster healthy competition across Europe based on robust, transparent and impartial evaluation procedures which address, in particular, potential gender bias.

The ERC shall give particular priority to assisting the best starting researchers with excellent ideas type 2 diabetes research studies make the transition to independence by providing adequate support at the diabetes and endocrinology center of ohio stage when they are setting up or consolidating their own research team or programme.

The ERC will also continue to provide appropriate levels of support for established researchers. The ERC shall also give support, as necessary, to new ways of working in the scientific world with the potential to create breakthrough results and to facilitate exploration of the commercial and social innovation potential of the research which it funds.

Bythe ERC shall therefore aim to demonstrate that the best researchers are participating in the ERC's competitions, that ERC funding has led to scientific publications of the highest quality and to research results with high societal and economic potential impact, and that the ERC has contributed significantly to making Europe a more attractive environment for the world's best scientists.

In addition it shall aim at a substantial increase in the number of excellent researchers from outside Europe whom it funds. The ERC shall share experience and best practices with regional and national research funding agencies in order to promote the support of excellent researchers.

In addition, the ERC shall further raise the visibility of its programmes. The ERC's Scientific Council shall continuously monitor the ERC's operations and evaluation procedures and consider how best to achieve its objectives by means of grant schemes that emphasise effectiveness, clarity, stability and simplicity, both for applicants and in their implementation and management, and, as necessary, to respond to emerging needs. It shall endeavour to sustain and further refine the ERC's world-class peer-review system which is based on fully transparent, fair and impartial treatment of proposals so that it can identify ground-breaking scientific excellence, breakthrough ideas and talent regardless of a researcher's gender, nationality, institution or age.

Finally, the ERC shall continue conducting its own strategic studies to prepare for and support its activities, maintain close contacts with the scientific community, the regional and national funding type 2 diabetes research studies and vércukor értékek stakeholders and aim to make its activities complement research conducted at other levels.

The Type 2 diabetes research studies will ensure transparency in communication about its activities and results to the scientific community and the general public and maintain updated data from funded projects.

ambulator diabétesz kezelésében a betegek természetesen a munka a diabetes mellitus kezelésében 2

Specific objective The specific objective is to foster radically new technologies with the potential to open new fields for scientific knowledge and technologies and contribute to the European next generation industries, by exploring novel and high-risk ideas building on scientific foundations.

By providing flexible support to goal-oriented and interdisciplinary collaborative research on various scales and by adopting innovative research practices, the aim is to identify and seize opportunities of long-term benefit for citizens, the economy and society. FET will bring Union added value to the frontiers of modern research. FET shall promote research and technology beyond what is known, accepted or widely adopted and shall foster novel and visionary thinking to open promising paths towards powerful new technologies, some of which could develop into leading technological and intellectual paradigms for the decades ahead.

FET shall foster efforts to pursue small-scale research opportunities across all areas, including emerging themes and grand scientific and technological type 2 diabetes research studies that require close collaboration between programmes across Europe and beyond. This approach shall be driven by excellence and extends type 2 diabetes research studies exploring pre-competitive ideas for shaping the future of technology, enabling society and industry to benefit from multi-disciplinary research collaboration that needs to be engaged at European level by making the link between research driven by science and research driven by societal goals and challenges or by industrial competitiveness.

Rationale and Union added value Radical breakthroughs répa cukorbetegség kezelésében a transformative impact increasingly rely on intense collaboration across disciplines in science and technology for instance, information and communication, biology, bioengineering and robotics, chemistry, physics, mathematics, medicine modelling, Earth system sciences, material sciences, neuro- and cognitive sciences, social sciences or economics and with the arts, behavioural sciences and humanities.


This may require not only excellence in science and technology but also new attitudes and novel interactions between a broad range of players in research. While some ideas can be developed on a small scale, others may be so challenging that they require a large collaborative effort over a substantial period of time.

Major economies worldwide have recognised this, and there is growing global competition to identify and pursue emerging technological opportunities at the frontier of science which osinsky kéreg a cukorbetegség kezelésében generate a considerable impact on innovation and benefits for society. To be effective, these types of activities may need to be built up quickly to a large scale by a common European effort around common goals to build critical mass, foster synergies and obtain optimal leveraging effects.

FET shall address the entire spectrum of science-driven innovation: from bottom-up, small-scale early explorations of embryonic and fragile ideas to building new research and innovation communities around transformative emerging research areas and large collaborative research initiatives built around a research agenda aiming to achieve ambitious and visionary goals.

These three levels of engagement each have their own specific value, while being complementary and synergistic. For example, small-scale explorations can reveal needs for developing new themes that can lead to large-scale action based on appropriate roadmaps.

They may involve a wide range of research players, including young researchers and research-intensive SMEs, and stakeholder communities civil society, policymakers, industry and public researchersclustered around evolving research agendas as they take shape, mature and diversify. Broad lines of activities Type 2 diabetes research studies FET aims to be visionary, transformative and unconventional, its activities shall follow different logics, from completely open to varying degrees of structuring of topics, communities and funding.

The activities shall give firmer shape to different logics for action, on the appropriate scale, identifying and seizing opportunities of long-term benefit for citizens, the economy and society: a By fostering novel ideas 'FET Open'FET shall support early stage science and technology research exploring new foundations for radically new future technologies by challenging current paradigms and venturing into unknown areas.

A bottom-up selection process widely open to any research ideas shall build up a diverse portfolio of targeted projects. Early detection of promising new areas, developments and trends, along with attracting new and high-potential research and innovation players, will be key factors. Such activities could benefit from the coordination between European, national and regional agendas.

The scientific advance should provide a strong and broad basis for future technological innovation and economic application, type 2 diabetes research studies novel benefits for society. These activities shall be realised using the existing funding instruments. Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions 3. Specific objective The specific objective is to ensure optimal development and dynamic use of Europe's intellectual capital in order to generate, develop and transfer new skills, knowledge and innovation and, thus, to realise its full potential across all sectors and regions.

Well-trained, dynamic and creative researchers are the essential element for the best science and the most productive research-based innovation. Although Europe hosts a large and diversified pool of skilled human resources for research and innovation, this needs to be constantly replenished, improved and adapted to the rapidly evolving needs of the labour market.

In addition, demographic factors mean that a disproportionate number of researchers will reach retirement age in the next few years. This, combined with the need for many more high-quality research jobs as the research intensity of the European economy increases, will be one of the main challenges facing European research, innovation and education systems type 2 diabetes research studies the years ahead.

The necessary reform must start at the first stages of the researchers' careers, during their doctoral studies or comparable post-graduate training.

Full size table Experimental design A To investigate the effect of DDW on metabolic changes occur in diabetes, diabetic and control rats were divided into two main groups: half of the animals were given DDW 25 ppm Dand the other half received normal tap water ppm Dboth provided ad libitum. To determine whether DDW exerts its effects, at least partially, by modifying the action of insulin, diabetic rats were further divided into subgroups according to insulin treatment. The control rats did not receive insulin treatment. We did not want to achieve euglycaemia by insulin treatment, but to prevent severe acute complications only. Therefore, two different doses of insulin Huminsulin Lilly Normal I.

Europe must develop state-of-the-art, innovative training schemes, consistent with the highly competitive and increasingly inter-disciplinary requirements of research and innovation. Significant involvement of businesses, including SMEs and other socio-economic actors, will be needed to equip researchers with the cross-cutting innovation and entrepreneurial skills demanded by the jobs of tomorrow and encourage them to consider their careers in industry or in the most innovative companies.

This reform must continue through every stage of researchers' careers.

It is vital to increase the mobility of researchers at all levels, including mid-career mobility, not only between countries but also between the public and private sectors. This creates a strong stimulus for learning and developing new skills. It is also a key factor in cooperation between academics, research centres and industry across countries. The human factor is the backbone of sustainable cooperation which is the key driver for an innovative and creative Europe able to face societal challenges, and key to overcoming fragmentation of national policies.

In this context, Horizon should also encourage career development and mobility of researchers through improved conditions to be defined for type 2 diabetes research studies portability of Horizon grants. Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions will ensure effective equal opportunities for the mobility of male and female researchers, including through specific measures to remove barriers. If Europe is to match its competitors in research and innovation, it must entice more young women and men to embark on research careers and provide highly attractive opportunities and environments for research and innovation.

The most talented individuals, from Europe and elsewhere, should see Europe as a pre-eminent place to work.

Volume 59 Issue 10

Gender equality, high-quality and reliable employment and working conditions and recognition are crucial aspects that must be secured in a consistent way across the whole of Europe. Rationale and Union added value Neither Union funding alone nor Member States individually will be able to address this challenge. Although Member States have introduced reforms to improve type 2 diabetes research studies tertiary education institutions and modernise their training systems, progress is still uneven across Europe, with big differences between countries.

Overall, scientific and technological cooperation between the public and private sectors generally remains weak in Europe. The same applies to gender equality and to the efforts to attract students and researchers from outside the ERA.

To speed up ekcéma a lábakon a cukorbetegséggel change, a strategic approach that goes beyond national borders is required at Union level.

Union funding is crucial to create incentives for and encourage the indispensable structural reforms. The Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions have made remarkable progress to promote mobility, both transnational and intersectoral, and to open research careers at European and international level, with excellent employment and working conditions following the principles of the European A kezelés az 1.

típusú diabétesz for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers. There is no equivalent in Member States as far as their scale and scope, funding, international character, generation and transfer of knowledge are concerned. They have strengthened the resources of those institutions able to attract researchers internationally and thereby encouraged the spread of centres of excellence around the Union. They have served as a role model with a pronounced structuring effect by spreading their best practices at national level.

The bottom-up approach taken by Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions has also allowed a large majority of those institutions to train and upgrade the skills of a new generation of researchers able to tackle societal challenges. Further development of the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions will make a significant contribution to development type 2 diabetes research studies the ERA.

With their Europe-wide competitive funding structure, Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions will, whilst respecting the principle of subsidiarity, encourage new, creative and innovative types of training such as joint or multiple doctoral degrees and industrial doctorates, involving research, innovation and education players who will have to compete globally for a reputation of excellence.

By providing Union funding for the best research and training programmes following the principles for innovative doctoral training in Europe, they will also promote wider dissemination and take-up, moving towards more structured doctoral training.

Marie Skłodowska-Curie grants will also be extended to the temporary mobility of experienced researchers and engineers from public institutions to the private sector or vice versa, thereby encouraging and supporting universities, research centres and businesses, and other socio-economic actors to cooperate with one another on a European and international scale.

With the aid of their well-established, transparent and fair evaluation system, Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions will identify excellent talents in research and innovation in an international competition which gives prestige and therefore motivation for researchers to advance their career in Europe.

These are international challenges of colossal complexity and magnitude. The best researchers in Europe and in the world need to work together across countries, sectors and disciplines. Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions will play a key role in this respect by supporting staff exchanges that will foster collaborative thinking through international and intersectoral knowledge-sharing that is so crucial for open innovation.

The co-funding mechanism of the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions will be crucial to expand Europe's pool of talents. The numerical and structural impact of Union action will be increased by leveraging regional, national and international funding, both public type 2 diabetes research studies private, to create new programmes with similar and complementary goals and to adapt existing ones to international and intersectoral training, mobility and career development.

Such a mechanism will forge stronger links between research and education efforts at national and Union level. All the activities under this challenge will contribute to creating a whole new mindset in Europe that is crucial for creativity and innovation.

Related news

Marie Skłodowska-Curie funding measures will strengthen pooling of resources in Europe and thereby lead to improvements in coordination and governance of researchers' training, mobility and career development. They will contribute to the policy goals outlined in the flagship initiatives 'Innovation Union', 'Youth on the Move' and 'Agenda for New Skills and Jobs' and will be vital to turn the ERA into reality.

Broad lines of activities type 2 diabetes research studies Fostering new skills by means of excellent initial training of researchers The goal is to train a new generation of creative and innovative researchers, able to convert knowledge and ideas into products and services for economic and social benefit in the Union.

This will improve career prospects for young post-graduate researchers in both the public and private sectors. Key activities shall be to encourage experienced researchers to broaden or deepen their a nem gyógyszeres kezelésére alkalmas eljárásokat diabétesz by means of mobility by opening attractive type 2 diabetes research studies opportunities in universities, research institutions, research infrastructures, businesses, SMEs and other socio-economic groups all over Europe and beyond.

This should enhance the innovativeness of the private sector and promote cross-sector mobility. This will include fostering cooperation with third countries. Key activities shall be, with the aid of a co-funding mechanism, to encourage regional, national and international organisations, both public and private, to create new programmes and to adapt existing ones to international and intersectoral training, mobility and career development.

This will increase the quality of research training in Europe at all career stages, including at doctoral level, foster free circulation of researchers and scientific knowledge in Europe, promote attractive research careers by offering open recruitment and attractive working conditions, and support research and innovation cooperation between universities, research institutions and enterprises and cooperation type 2 diabetes research studies third countries and international organisations.

In this context, indicators shall be developed and data related to researchers' mobility, skills, careers and gender equality analysed, seeking synergies and close coordination with the policy support actions on researchers, their employers and funders carried out under the specific objective 'Europe in a changing world - Inclusive, innovative and reflective societies'. The activity shall further aim at raising awareness of pneumonia kezelésére diabetes importance and attractiveness of a research career and at disseminating research and innovation results emanating from work supported by Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions.

Besides studies revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying the associations of telomere defects and mitochondrial functions, investigations of mitochondrial DNA copy number mtDNAcn and telomere length TL in healthy and disease phenotypes have likewise begun, with the aim of gaining more insights about their relationship in humans. Material and methods: A total of asymptomatic adult twins, comprising 96 monozygotic MZ and 46 dizygotic DZ twins mean age:

Research Infrastructures 4. Specific objective The specific objective is to endow Europe with world-class research infrastructures which are accessible to all researchers in Europe and beyond and which fully exploit their potential for scientific advance and innovation. Research infrastructures are key determinants of Europe's competitiveness across the full breadth of scientific domains and essential to science-based innovation.

In many fields research is impossible without access to supercomputers, analytical facilities, radiation sources for new materials, clean rooms and advanced metrology for nanotechnologies, specially equipped labs for biological and medical research, databases for genomics and social sciences, observatories and sensors for the Earth sciences and the environment, high-speed broadband networks for transferring data, etc.

Research infrastructures are necessary to carry out the research needed to address major societal type 2 diabetes research studies. They propel collaboration across borders and disciplines and create a seamless and open European space for online research.

They promote mobility of people and ideas, bring together the best scientists from across Europe and the world and enhance scientific education.

They challenge researchers and innovative companies to develop state of the art technology. In this way, they strengthen Europe's type 2 diabetes research studies innovative industry. They drive excellence within the European research and innovation communities and can be outstanding showcases of science for society at large. Europe must establish, on the basis of commonly agreed criteria, an adequate, stable base for building, maintaining and operating research infrastructures if its research is to remain world-class.

This requires substantial and effective cooperation between Union, national and regional funders for which strong links with the cohesion policy will be pursued to ensure synergies and a coherent approach. This specific objective addresses a core commitment of the flagship initiative 'Innovation Union', which highlights the crucial role played by world-class research infrastructures in making ground-breaking research and innovation possible.

The initiative stresses the need to pool resources across Europe, and in some cases globally, in order to build and operate research infrastructures. Equally, the flagship initiative 'Digital Agenda for Europe' emphasises the need to reinforce Europe's e-infrastructures and the importance of developing innovation clusters to build Europe's innovative advantage. Rationale and Union added value State-of-the-art research infrastructures are becoming increasingly complex and costly, betegségek és kezelése ízületek diabetes requiring integration of different equipment, services and data sources and extensive transnational collaboration.

No single country has enough resources to support all the research infrastructures it needs. The European approach to research infrastructures has made remarkable progress in recent years with continuously developing and implementing the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures ESFRI roadmap for infrastructures, integrating and opening national research facilities and developing e-infrastructures underpinning an open digital ERA.

The networks of research infrastructures across Europe strengthen its human resource base by providing world-class training for a new generation of researchers and engineers and promoting interdisciplinary collaboration. Synergies with Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions will be encouraged. Further development and wider use of research infrastructures at European level will make a significant contribution to development of the ERA.