Blood test could predict diabetes years before it strikes

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Johns Hopkins Medicine Summary: People with pre-diabetes who lose roughly 10 percent of their body weight within six months of diagnosis dramatically reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes over the next three years, according to new research.

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Share: FULL STORY People with pre-diabetes who lose roughly 10 percent of their body weight within six months of diagnosis dramatically reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes over the next three years, according to results of research led by Johns Hopkins scientists.

Substantial weight loss in the short term clearly should go a long way toward preventing diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes -- marked by excess sugar in the blood -- can lead to eye, kidney and nerve damage, as well as cardiovascular disease.

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The new research suggests that if people with pre-diabetes don't lose enough weight in those first months, physicians may want to consider more aggressive treatment, such as adding a medication to push blood sugar levels lower.

A report on the research is published online today in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Maruthur and her colleagues based their conclusions on analysis diabetes research journal data from the Diabetes Prevention Program DPPthe largest diabetes prevention study in the United States.

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Overweight, diabetes research journal people were recruited between and and followed for an average of 3. More than 3, participants at 27 academic medical centers were assigned at random either to receive an intense lifestyle intervention, doses of the diabetes drug metformin designed to reduce blood glucose sugar levels, or a placebo. Maruthur and her colleagues searched the study information for links among diabetes research journal weight loss, reduction diabetes nurse blood glucose levels and impact on the longer-term risk of developing diabetes.

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Although not all people with pre-diabetes develop full-blown type 2 disease, without intervention the risk of getting it within 10 years is substantially increased and damage to health may already have begun. The good news, Maruthur says, is that studies like diabetes research journal show that the progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes is not inevitable and lifestyle changes can bring diabetes research journal sugar levels back to normal. Participants in diabetes research journal lifestyle arm of the DPP were advised about better eating habits, directed to exercise minutes a week, and given one-on-one counseling for the first six months and group counseling thereafter.

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Researchers found that those in the lifestyle intervention arm who lost 10 percent or more of their body weight had an 85 percent reduction in risk of developing diabetes within three years.

Even more moderate weight loss showed positive effects.

This discovery could lead to a test that would help doctors identify patients at greatest risk and help them diabetes research journal avert the disease through interventions including diet and exercise. The research was led by Michael Wheeler, a professor of physiology at U of T's Faculty of Medicine, in collaboration with Hannes Röst, an assistant professor of molecular genetics and computer science at the Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, Feihan Dai, a research scientist of physiology and Erica Gunderson, a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research in Northern California. Mi Lai, a post-doctoral fellow in Wheeler's group performed much of the analyses. The identified metabolic signature can predict with over 85 per cent accuracy if a woman will develop type 2 diabetes T2Das described in a study published in the journal Plos Medicine.

Those who lost 5 to 7 percent of their body weight reduced their risk of developing diabetes by 54 percent three years later. Those who were given metformin, a drug that prevents the liver from producing too much glucose, did not lose significant amounts of weight on average.

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But those whose blood sugar levels were significantly lowered in six months of taking the medication saw terhességi diabétesz értékek future risk of developing diabetes fall as well. The lowest risk, Maruthur says, occurred in patients who lost weight and also lowered the amount of glucose in their blood, as measured by a blood test taken after fasting.

When blood tests indicate pre-diabetes, doctors like Maruthur often discuss with their patients the changes they can make diabetes research journal hopefully stave off type 2 diabetes.

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The new research suggests just how valuable -- and potentially cost-effective -- such interventions could be, she says. Other Johns Hopkins researchers involved in the study include Frederick L. Brancati, M. Clark, M. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference: Nisa M. Maruthur, Yong Ma, Linda M. Delahanty, Julie A. Nelson, Vanita Aroda, Neil H. White, David Marrero, Frederick L. Brancati, Jeanne M.

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